The catalyst loses its activity due to various factors in use, and one of the most important factors is poisoning. No matter how active the catalyst is at the beginning of the operation, if its deactivation rate is faster than expected, then the performance of the device will be affected and the profitability will decrease accordingly. Alfa Chemistry Catalysts can provide customers with catalyst detoxification solutions to help maintain the time of catalyst activity and reduce production and maintenance costs.
Arsenic has traditionally been regarded as a serious catalyst poison. Compared to other pollutants, arsenic is a real poison because it forms NiAs or CoAs, which actively titrates the active catalytic sites.
The chlorine in the raw materials can poison downstream catalysts or fouling equipment, and can pose a major threat to the productivity of ammonia and hydrogen production plants.
Nickel and vanadium are commonly found in heavier hydrocarbon fractions, such as vacuum gas oil (VGO), and are less in heavy coking gas oil, but especially in deasphalted oil (DAO). When nickel and vanadium are deposited on the catalyst, they can clog the pore system, thereby deactivating the catalyst.
Phosphorus is often added to crude oil as a corrosion inhibitor and is commonly found in regenerated raw materials. It can block the passage to the inside of the catalyst and inhibit the hydroprocessing catalyst. For renewable raw materials, fast-reacting phospholipids can also cause a pressure drop.
When silicon contaminates the main catalyst, it will accelerate the deactivation and shorten the cycle time.
Operating at a lower temperature can significantly reduce the operating costs of the refinery, but the low operating temperature will have a negative impact on the saturation capacity of traditional zinc oxide sulfur absorbents.
Phase Transfer Catalysts