Lead is one of the first metals used by human beings, which is widely distributed, easy to extract and process, with high ductility, softness and low melting point. Therefore, lead is also generally used in construction, lead-acid batteries, warheads, shells, welding materials, fishing equipment, radiation-resistant materials and some alloys. Lead also plays an important role in catalysis. Lead catalyst has many applications in both industrial production and scientific research.
Pyridine is an important organic solvent and fine chemical raw material. At present, the most widely used synthetic route is to directly synthesize pyridine in fixed bed or fluidized bed with acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and ammonia as raw materials in the presence of Pb/ ZSM-5 catalyst. In recent years, metal oxide catalysts such as Pb/Al2O3 and Pb /ZrOx have achieved considerable development and are widely used in the fields of organic synthesis catalysis and photocatalytic oxidation.
Figure 1. Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyze oxidation of glycerol
Organolead compounds are extensively adopted as antiseptic, fungicide, catalyst and stabilizer in automobile industry. In the field of catalysis, perovskite organic lead halide compounds have good photoelectric properties and have promising applications in the fields of photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. Some less toxic organolead compounds are used as catalysts for organic synthesis. Such as lead (II) tetrafluoroborate (Pb(BF4)2) it can catalyze for mediation of calixarene formation via hydrogen-bonded dimers.
Metal-supported catalysts have developed rapidly in recent years, which can improve the dispersion of active components, reduce the amount of catalyst metal used, and enhance the mechanical strength of the catalyst. Lead is one of the most important metal support catalysts. At present, bimetallic catalysts with two active centers are intensively studied. Among them, Ni-Pb /C catalyst is the research hotspot that can be used to catalyze the carbonylation of ethanol.