Beryllium, atomic number 4, belongs to the second main group element of the second periodic. It is a grayish-white alkaline earth metal whose compounds are highly toxic. Beryllium is an amphoteric metal that is soluble in both acid and alkali and is mainly used to prepare alloys. As an alkaline earth metal, beryllium is a rare light metal with low density, high melting point, large modulus of elasticity, high tensile strength, excellent thermal stability, good dimensional stability, small neutron absorption cross-section, and X-ray transmission properties. All these excellent properties make it become an irreplaceable material in the fields of aerospace and catalysis. It is called "super metal", "tip metal" and "space metal".
Figure 1. Beryllium catalysts
The beryllium and its products currently available for catalysis are mainly metal beryllium, beryllium alloys, oxidized beryllium, and certain beryllium compounds. They are generally used as catalysts for catalyzing organic reactions such as hydroamination, dehydrogenation coupling, hydrosilation, and hydroboration.
Beryllium is a special material with some properties that cannot be replaced by any other metal material. At present, the main production methods for extracting beryllium from ore in the world are the sulfuric acid method and fluorination method.
- Sulfuric acid method: Sulfuric acid is still one of the most widely used methods in modern beryllium production. The principle is to use pre-baking to destroy the structure and crystal form of the beryllium mineral, and then use sulphuric acid to acidify the beryllium-containing mineral. The acid-soluble metal such as beryllium, aluminum or iron is brought into the solution phase and is separated from the gangue mineral such as silicon, and then the beryllium-containing solution is purified and removed to obtain a qualified beryllium product.
- Fluorination: The fluorination method is based on the principle that sodium beryllium fluoride is soluble in water, and cryolite is insoluble in water. The green spar was mixed with sodium silicofluoride and sintered at 750 ℃ for 2 h. The agglomerate was wet-milled to a particle size of 0.074 mm and leached three times with water at room temperature. The fluorination process is relatively simple, has good corrosion protection conditions, and is also suitable for processing high fluorine-containing raw materials, but the product quality is slightly inferior to the sulfuric acid method.
- Song Tianyou, Cheng Peng, Wang Xingqiao, Xu Jianing. (2009)"Inorganic Chemistry on the book." Higher Education Press. 189-1892.
- Wang Yanqiang. "Important material metal - Beryllium".(1999). Friends of Chemical Industry. 10(28):27-31.
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